Holy Cow Tractor Pulling Team

Grader

A grader, also commonly referred to as a road grader, a blade, a maintainer, or a motor grader, is a construction machine with a long blade used to create a flat surface. Typical models have three axles, with the engine and cab situated above the rear axles at one end of the vehicle and a third axle at the front end of the vehicle, with the blade in between. In certain countries, for example in Finland, almost every grader is equipped with a second blade that is placed in front of the front axle. Some construction personnel refer to the entire machine as "the blade." Capacities range from a blade width of 2.50 to 7.30 m and engines from 93373 kW (125500 hp). Certain graders can operate multiple attachments, or be used for separate tasks like underground mining. In civil engineering, the grader's purpose is to "finish grade" (refine, set precisely) the "rough grading" performed by heavy equipment or engineering vehicles such as scrapers and bulldozers. Graders are commonly used in the construction and maintenance of dirt roads and gravel roads. In the construction of paved roads they are used to prepare the base course to create a wide flat surface for the asphalt to be placed on. Graders are also used to set native soil foundation pads to finish grade prior to the construction of large buildings.Graders can produce inclined surfaces, to give cant (camber) to roads. In some countries they are used to produce drainage ditches with shallow V-shaped cross-sections on either side of highways. A more recent innovation is the outfitting of graders with GPS technology, such as manufactured by Topcon Positioning Systems, Inc., Trimble Navigat

on, Leica Geosystems or Mikrofyn[1] for precise grade control and (potentially) "stakeless" construction. Heavy equipment refers to heavy-duty vehicles, specially designed for executing construction tasks, most frequently ones involving earthwork operations. They are also known as, construction equipment, construction plant, earth movers, engineering vehicles, or simply equipment. They usually comprise five equipment systems: implement, traction, structure, power train, control and information.[1] Heavy equipment functions through the mechanical advantage of a simple machine, the ratio between input force applied and force exerted is multiplied.[2] Currently most equipment use hydraulic drives as a primary source of motion. History The first self-propelled grader was made by the Russell Grader Manufacturing Company in 1920: the Russell Motor Hi-Way Patrol. Early graders such as this were propelled by separate tractor units, with the grader blade as an attachment. After purchasing the company in 1928 Caterpillar went on to integrate the tractor and grader into one design - at the same time replacing crawler tracks with wheels to yield the first rubber-tyre self-propelled grader, the Caterpillar Auto Patrol, released in 1931.[2] [edit]Regional uses In some locales such as Northern Europe, Canada, and places in the United States, graders are often used in municipal and residential snow removal. In scrubland and grassland areas of Australia and Africa, graders are often an essential piece of equipment on ranches, large farms, and plantations to make dirt tracks where the absence of rocks and trees means bulldozers are not required.

C.O.W. Systems